At the April BSV Monday meeting, John and Dave talked about collecting Yamadori in Australia and the issues you face when collecting.
John had several recent Yamadori on display to illustrate the types of trees that could be collected.
They covered a very wide range of issues that you will need to address if you are to be successful at collecting Yamadori. Some of their comments are included below.
Make sure your planned activities are legal. There are Federal, State and Local Government laws that apply in various circumstances and permits may be required. Urban Yamadori on private property may be an easier option.
Risk management plans are necessary to ensure diggers and the public are kept safe.
Yamadori can range from small to very large.
Digging and caring for Yamadori are time intensive activities so choose carefully before you start to dig.
Dave suggests you select your tree based on nebari, movement, taper and bark. Branches can be grown later.
Some species such as Hawthorn can be temperamental so timing and aftercare are critical.
Different techniques such as the “Sweating Technique” and open soil mixes are being experimented with to improve success rates. The roots need to be kept moist until the tree can be potted. Some species such as Jade need special treatment to avoid wood rot.
Equipment needed depends on many things but could include hand saws, secateurs and a sharp shovel. A chain saw may also be an option. Pre-dig preparation can assist.
Photos of trees on display at the Meeting are included below.
In the first meeting for 2018, Tien from Bonsai Sensation conducted a brief demonstration on growing figs for bonsai followed by a workshop for members to work on their figs and seek guidance if necessary. Over 40 BSV Members were very engaged in the demo and the workshop and there was a real buzz in the air as they got down to work. Below are a few photos of Tien demonstrating with figs. It was interesting to see how quickly Tien trimmed his trees.
Tien focussed his demonstration of developing fig bonsai with good nebari and taper. He covered repotting, trimming of roots and branches and defoliation. He reminded all those present that the tree doesn’t want to be a bonsai so we need to regularly trim the longer shoots.
It was close to a full house as BSV members met for the final meeting of 2017. First on the Agenda was the Annual General Meeting of the Society followed by Trevor talking about azaleas. The evening finished with a great supper provided by members.
Brief reports were provided covering the years activities. These included the continuing healthy membership, extensive communications with members via Newsletter, Web site and Facebook, an extensive program of demonstrations and workshops, Masterclass and Novice sessions, a very successful Annual Bonsai Exhibition, Welcome packs for new members, a successful Sales Day and several community events. Finances remain sound with further investments in member benefits and a small surplus recorded for the year. Membership fees will remain unchanged for 2018.
The Frank Hocking Award for 2017 was awarded to Robert R. for his many valuable and ongoing contributions to the Society.
Following a recommendation from the Committee, the meeting agreed to award Life Membership to Gerard S. in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the Society over many years. Gerard also won the tree display raffle with his Lemon Scented Gum displayed earlier in the year.
Many thanks were extended to the Committee and members for their hard work during the year to create opportunities for members to develop and extend their bonsai art capabilities.
Following the annual reports, elections for next years office bearers were conducted by Howard W.. Victor, Chris and Neil continue as President, Treasurer and Committee member. The Society welcomes new Committee members Melissa as Secretary together with John H., Victor L., Andre N., Kim B. and Colin B..
Special thanks were extended to the retiring Committee members Kevin, Rob and Lyn for their contributions during this and past years.
The Committee looks forward to your continuing involvement in the Society during 2018.
Following the AGM, Trevor from Bonsai Art Nursery talked about azaleas; some of which are displayed above. Trevor focussed on the Satsuki variety in his talk.
The correct pronunciation of Satsuki can be challenging with the “u” being silent in Japanese. Trevor has a long habit of using the phonetic pronunciation for many years and finds it difficult to change.
Azaleas are part of the Rhododendron genus and the common indica, kurume and satsuki cultivars have been intensely cultivated over hundreds of years.
Satsuki azaleas are good for bonsai. They have small leaves, they flower in late spring/early summer and have new growth before flowering. They have been bred in Japan over hundreds of years to be used in bonsai. There are thousands of species with an extensive range of flower colours and shapes. Different colours and shapes can be found on the same plant and they can change over time.
Indica and kurume varieties can be used for bonsai but are generally not preferred. Indica have large leaves and flowers and kurume require more work than satsuki.
Satsuki enjoy being a bit pot bound and are suitable for many bonsai styles.
Soil needs to be well draining and watering is best applied after the surface layer dries out. Pots may need to be a bit deeper to help the plants cope with the drier conditions in Australia.
Satsuki in bloom are great indoors for short periods but avoid watering the flowers to extend their life. Soak the pot.
Satsuki are not apical dominant so be very careful when trimming the apex.
Time in the ground can help develop nebari.
The lace bug is the most common pest and will need a systemic insecticide to control.
And many other helpful hints which I am sure Trevor will be happy to share when you visit his nursery.
Display trees including azaleas are included below.
Our guest presenter for the Monday meeting was Tien from Bonsai Sensation together with a cameo appearance from Victor to talk about the Bunjin style. Tien’s task for the night was to take a well developed Black Pine and move it towards a Bunjin style.
Tien talked about the features of the tree and how they guided their thinking towards a Bunjin style which is illustrated in the following sketch. The great trunk line and nice bark are very important in this tree.
Below are several photos showing the styling adjustments and the final outcome for the night. One major branch has not been jinned at this stage as a cautious approach towards the final design. Also, remaining branches and foliage will need further development and refinement.
During the course of the re-styling, Tien also shared many of his ideas about growing bonsai.
Ensure the branches you develop are sustainable.
Tien prefers to see the trunk and branches.
When developing pines, keep the tree growth compact while letting a lower branch leader run to develop better nebari. Time in the ground can assist and ultimately the leader is removed. See the examples below.
Take advantage of back budding to develop compact growth.
Tien doesn’t like the rounded apex for older trees as the growth can lead to thicker branches which detracts from the tree design and ultimately will need to be cut off and started again. Trimming back and replacing with new growth is the preferred option.
Victor talked about the history of the Bunjin or Literati style and how it developed many years ago. Characteristics include a three-dimensional and asymmetrical form leading to a tall, elegant and slender tree. The pot needs to be understated so it doesn’t distract from the trunk line. Prominent nebari is not required as the emphasis is on the trunk and its quality, texture and line. Branches should be few in number and usually short in proportion to the height of the tree. Foliage tends to be sparse.
Annalea joined us at our September meeting to share her extensive knowledge and 22 years experience of growing wisteria’s. The capacity crowd enjoyed the discussion and had lots of questions for Annalea.
Highlights of the presentation are included below.
The tree in the above photos is a floribunda or Japanese variety.
Propagation by air layer is the preferred method. Grafts can also work. These methods usually produce flowers quickly. Growing from seed is considered a waste of time.
Best growing conditions for wisteria’s vary with the climate and experimentation will be required to get the best out of your plants.
At least 6 hours of direct sun a day is needed to get good flower displays.
Soil needs to be well draining and open. No dust.
A variety of fertilisers over the growing season can be beneficial but it is very important that high potassium varieties are used in late summer/early autumn to encourage next season flower growth. Generally use half the strength of the label suggestions.
Pruning whips is usually done when they get to a metre long. Cut back to three buds. Leave the shorter stubs as flowers bud on these.
Defoliation may be another option for wisteria’s but Annalea has not tried this option.
Over time, wisteria branches keep extending and will need to be cut back. An air layer opportunity?
Use wire very carefully as branches/trunks can snap easily. Bend over days/weeks and try to twist the branch to strengthen branches.
When styling, be mindful of the size of the flowers. Wisterias tend to have straight trunks so if taking an air layer, get something interesting. Further bending may also be required.
Wounds/cuts can take a long time to heal. Sealing cut branches and large roots is essential. Sharp tools are required.
Air Layers. Best time is end October/early November. Think about the nebari and trunk movement when selecting the air layer location. Often there is a good thick area where branches join. Use hormone powder. Cover with a thick pad ( 50mm?) of wet sphagnum moss. Cover with clear plastic and tie tightly at both ends. Then apply black plastic over the top so you can check the root development without disturbing the roots. Add more water if required. It should take 6 to 7 weeks for roots to develop. Before potting the air layer, remove as much deadwood as possible from under the root ball and seal well. You should get strong feeder root growth in a flat plane. See photo below for an example of root development after one year in the pot.
Repot annually or maybe very two years.
Beware of fungus attack. They can be terminal and it is often very difficult to detect early indications of infection and to treat. The fungus can be contagious so disinfect tools and hands to avoid spreading it to other trees. See the photo of a casualty below.
Victor extending thanks to Annalea.
A selection of other trees on display are included below.
Rui Ferreira from the Algarve area of Portugal gave up some of his European summer to enjoy the delights of a Victorian winter and share his wealth of bonsai experience with BSV members. In addition to conducting workshops with members over the last couple of days, Rui’s challenge for the Monday demonstration was to re-style a Juniperus squamata. Playing safe was not an option so Rui pursued his preferred vision of the tree recognising that only so much could be done at this time. See Rui with the tree before re-styling below.
Considering the re-styling, Rui liked the first movement in the trunk but was planning to tackle what he believed were the two major issues for the tree. The lack of taper towards the top of the tree and the sparse foliage. A drastic reduction was proposed as a first step towards a more compact tree as shown below.
This variety of juniper tends to be brittle so branches likely to require bending had been kept moist for most of the day to assist. Narrow jute webbing soaked in water and wrapped around branches prior to wiring and bending is Rui’s preferred method. He has found that raffia can scar or mark the trunk. See the use of webbing on the main branch below.
Jins are generally created by cutting halfway through the branch and then breaking the branch as this can help create good jins. His favourite tool for removing bark is a tool used to clean horses hooves. Jins are usually left for twelve months for them to weather before using lime sulphur or similar.
As the final styling developed, Rui decided the upper branch was too long with no growth and it was removed.
For potting, a small round pot with a rough texture was preferred. Rui noted that he had seen some great pots in Australia and he was sure options were available that would help capture the vision for this tree.
Following final trimming, Rui was pleased with the “rough sketch” that had now been developed as is shown below. Future development will focus on developing compact growth and adding a shari to the lower trunk to make it less bulky.
The BSV thanks Rui for sharing his knowledge and experience and helping Members improve their bonsai skills.
At the June Meeting of the Bonsai Society of Victoria, Michael S. demonstrated a great approach to developing seedlings into bonsai. Members enjoyed a very interesting discussions about the process which Michael was able to demonstrate on a range of tree varieties. Many helpful hints were provided throughout the discussion and a number of these are included below.
The essence of Michael’s approach is “balancing vigour”. This applies to both foliage and roots and is generally achieved through leader replacement and wiring. This approach also contributes significantly to developing taper. See below for more comments on the process
This is a process for developing seedlings into foundation material for great bonsai.
Start the process when seedlings are well established but still flexible enough for wiring and bending.
The seedlings are removed from the pot, old leader cut back, new leader wired and shaped, roots trimmed to balance vigour and shortened and then repotted. This process is repeated every year or two over many years as the trunk is progressively developed.
When trimming roots, preferably select those at a 45 degree angle to the main trunk line as this contributes to better nebari.
Wiring needs to achieve an elegant shape in three dimensions and be mindful of what you are trying to achieve in10 years or so.
If a trunk is too thick to wire, cut off, repot and try again.
Planting in the ground may assist growth in some species. But, for junipers, experience suggests that planting in the ground rarely gives a better outcome that using a pot. Also, junipers are a species known for naturally poor nebari.
If applying this process to conifers, the suggestion is to leave the previous leader in place as they often don’t bud again – eventually it will be removed. Try to arrange branch placement to encourage vigour in the new leader and discourage growth in the old leader.
Feed your plants well and when using pots, it is best to repot after two years to achieve higher growth rates. If in the ground, balance vigour after three years.
Members also had several trees on display and these are included below. Apologies for the lack of focus in some photos but hopefully you can still appreciate the shape and colour.
The June Workshop was held a week earlier than normal to avoid the public holiday in Victoria next week. For interested Members, there was also a Masterclass conducted by Victor L. to show members how to grow a triple trunk Trident Maple.
Masterclass – While developing a triple trunk Trident maple will involve many years of growing, trimming and shaping, the starting point is straightforward. See notes below.
Select seeds from a tree with the desired leaf shape and grow seedlings.
Use an aluminium plate with three holes to achieve the initial placement of the seedlings. See photo below.
Wire the seedlings to keep the trunks apart and pot with about 3cms of soil above the aluminium plate.
Balance the seedling growth so each trunk has a different diameter. During this period, also start to develop the styling of the trunks and branches.
A growth period in the ground may assist.
When roots growing above the plate fuse together, you cut off the roots below the plate and remove the plate.
Continue to style the “tree” as it grows and develops.
The following tree is an example of what can be achieved with this technique.
Our first meeting for 2017 was a typical Melbourne hot and humid night. But it was wonderful to come together again to renew friendships and to focus on bonsai. Many BSV Members enjoyed the welcoming and happy atmosphere.
We were provided with an excellent demonstration from Steve and an informative presentation from Tom about growing the many varieties of figs.
For Steve’s demonstration, he had a group of fig trees originally created in about 1988 by Arthur R. The trees are believed to be Port Jackson figs but there was some conjecture about this. Tom believes one of the trees was a Ficus watkinsinia because of the rough bark. One of the trees in the group was quite loose suggesting a root issue which was confirmed after the tree was removed. It only had one tap root so was removed from the group. Steve checked the state of roots of all trees. No pests were found in the soil but there was concern that drainage was poor; perhaps due to too many fine particles in the soil. Steve has now used a more open and coarse soil mix to improve drainage and encourage better root development. The group had been defoliated about a month ago and with some root pruning will improve its vigour and health.
Steve repositioned the group trees, reviewed with Members at the meeting and repotted the group in the same pot. A couple of additional small trees are being considered to enhance the grouping. See the photo of the revised grouping.
Tom provided notes on the wide range of fig varieties and their distinguishing features. He had an extensive range of varieties on display to demonstrate the differences. Some figs are not native to Australia. Tom also talked extensively about the best way to grow and develop fig bonsai. Some guidance from Tom is included below.
Why prune?? To shape a bonsai tree, to stop long branches, to shorten internodes, encourage back budding and to develop taper.
Defoliatation. Tom uses this technique to reduce leaf size and improve ramification. He prefers cutting off the leaves halfway between the leaf and the stem rather than pulling off the leaves to avoid damage to smaller stems. Defoliate between November and before March. If you have a very healthy tree, you may be able to defoliate up to three times in one season but probably not every year. One or two defoliations a season would be a safer option to ensure the tree is not unduly stressed. Water on the cut sections is not considered necessary but make sure you do not get the sap in your eyes.
Repotting – Tom advises to ensure there is at least 6 weeks growing period after repotting and pruning. In Melbourne, generally repot between September and February.
Most figs are frost tender and dislike drafts – hot and cold. Generally, they need filtered light. If indoors, lots of daylight but not direct sun light. Ficus benjamina in particular can survive in indirect light.
For watering, they don’t like wet feet so use a very open mix. Tom uses a mixture of diatomite and sifted pine bark such as orchiata.
For fertilizing he soaks cow manure in a huge barrel and then dilutes the solution. You can use a combination of osmocote, powerfeed , Seasol, Charlie Carp, etc.
For the September Meeting, Chris Xepapas, a visiting tutor from Tasmania, conducted a re-styling demonstration on a well established Cedrus deodora. Many BSV members were in attendance to hear and observe a very entertaining and informative presentation as Chris guided us through the re-styling process. Along the way, Chris shared many stories about working in the industry and provided much information about growing cedars and many other species. Continue reading 2016 September Cedar Demonstration
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